Slightly WordPress centric, but great introduction and tutorial on one page about page speed.
Great extensive write-up on how to use Google Chrome Developer Tools’ timeline function to isolate bottlenecks and then addressing them.
Brilliant article on A List Apart from Etsy’s engineering manager on how simple and common site and page speed initiatives can improve user experience.
Zoompf explains why your internet connection (and how fast/good it is) has little to do with site speed.
The folks at Catchpoint explain why a great “Page Speed” score (as calculated by Google), doesn’t equate to increased page speed.
Matt Cutts explains how Google measures the page speed data that is shown to Webmasters in the Google WMT console.
A significant offering, targeted to smaller, simpler website owners that don’t have the development or technical ability to invest in Website Performance Optimization (WPO). The actual Page Speed Service home has more details.